India’s is the Best

Here is a list of Indian states/UTs with predominant languages:

1. Jammu & Kashmir (Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, Baltistani, Dardi)

2. Himanchal Pradesh (Hindi, Pahadi)

3. Punjab (Punjabi, Hindi and Urdu)

4. Haryana (Hindi, Haryanvi, Predominantly Muslim – Urdu)

5. Rajasthan (Hindi, Rajasthani, Marwadi, Predominantly Muslim – Urdu)

6. Uttar Pradesh (Hindi, Brijbhasha, Pahadi, Avadhi, Bhojpuri, numerous others, Pred. Musl. – Urdu)

7. Madhya Pradesh (Hindi, Marathi, numerous others, pred. Muslim – Urdu)

8. Gujarat (Gujarati)

9. Maharashtra (Marathi, Vidarbha region – Hindi and Marathi, Konkan region – Konkani and Malwani)

10. Karnataka (Kannada, Tulu, Konkani)

11. Goa (Konkani)

12. Kerala (Malayalam)

13. Tamil Nadu (Tamil)

14. Lakshadweep (small chain of islands – Malayalam (?) )

15. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andamanese)

16. Andhra Pradesh (Telugu, Hyderabad city – Telugu plus Urdu)

17. Orissa (Oriya)

18. Bihar (Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithini, Santhali, Angika, numerous others, Bengali, Pred. Muslim – Urdu)

19. West Bengal (Bengali)

20. Sikkim (Nepali, Lepcha, Bhutia)

21. Assam (Assamese, others)

22. Meghalaya (Garo, Khasi)

23. Arunanchal Pradesh (I plead ignorance!)

24. Mizoram (Mizo)

25. Nagaland (Naga)

26. Tripura (Tripuri, Bengali, Kuki)

27. Delhi (Capital City and sorrounding area – given quasi-statehood recently)

Other languages – Sindhi, SanskritOther Indian languages which are not represented in the “leftover” India -Baluchi, Pashto (in Pakistan now)


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Is it too cryptic? If it did not make much sense, copy the above para in to a new Word or any document editor and change the font to Courier New and the size to 6. Keep the text selected and try to read now.

If you still can’t figure it out, select the whole picture from top-left corner to bottom-right corner and you will se a picture.

Classical Indian astronomy documented in literature spanning the Maurya (Vedanga Jyotisha, ca. 5th century BCE) to the Mughal (such as the 16th century Kerala school) periods.

The first named authors writing treatises on astronomy emerge from the 5th century CE, the date when the classical period of Indian astronomy can be said to begin. Besides the theories of Aryabhata in the Aryabhatiya and the lost Arya-siddhānta, we find the Pancha-Siddhāntika of Varahamihira. From this time on, we find a predominance of geocentric models, and possibly heliocentric models, in Indian astronomy, in contrast to the “Merucentric” astronomy of Puranic, Jaina and Buddhist traditions whose actual mathematics has been largely lost and only fabulous accounts remain.[citation needed]

The astronomy and the astrology of ancient India (Jyotisha) is based upon sidereal calculations, although a tropical system was also used in a few cases. For example, Uttarayana (Uttarāyana उत्तरायण) was determined according to a tropical system in the Mahabharata, or by Lagadha in the Vedanga Jyotisha. But even then, sidereal astronomy was the mainstay. Now, even Uttarāyana is determined according to the sidereal system of Hindus.

  1. Which was India’s first satellite?

Aryabhatta was India’s first satellite. It was launched on April 19, 1975, from the Soviet Union. It weighed 360 Kg and was 16cm high with 26 faces. Its objective was to conduct experiments in X-rays, astronomy and physics.

  1. When was Bhaskara launched?

Bhaskara India’s second satellite, was launched on 7 June, 1979, from the Soviet Union.

  1. When was Bhaskara-II launched?

Bhaskara-II, an earth observation satellite, was launched on November 20, 1981, from the Soviet Union.

  1. What do you know about INSAT-1A?

INSAT-1A was India’s first operational multipurpose and unique domestic satellite. It was meant to enhance the communicational, meteorological and television relay and radio broadcasting capabilities. It was launched on April 10, 1982, from Cape Canaveral (U.S.A.).

  1. When was INSAT-1B launched?

India’s multipurpose domestic satellite, INSAT-1B, was launched on August 30, 1983, by space shuttle. It is functioning successfully even today.  (Thanks to the observant reader who noticed that the “1883” date originally posted was possibly inaccurate!)

  1. Which was the first satellite-launch-vehicle of India?

SLV-3 was India’s first satellite-launch-vehicle. It put Rohini satellite into orbit on July 18, 1980. It was fabricated at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivendrum.

  1. What do you know about Rohini-I and II?

Rohini-I was launched mainly to evaluate the performance of the fourth stage of SLV-3. It fulfilled its mission but burnt on July 24, 1981, while re-entering the earth’s atmosphere.Rohini-II became the fourth Indian satellite to orbit the earth on May 31, 1981. It was launched from Sriharikota. But it stayed only for 9 days and burnt on June 9, 1981.

  1. What was the primary mission of Bhaskara-I?

The primary mission of Bhaskara was to collect information on India’s land, water, forest and ocean resources. It was designed and built by the Indian space scientists at the Satellite Centre, Bangalore.

  1. Who was the first Indian to enter into space?

Sq. Ldr. Rakesh Sharma was the first Indian to enter into space aboard Soyuz T-II Russian spaceship. He went into space on 3rd April, 1984, along with two Soviet cosmonauts.

  1. Name the places where atomic-power stations have been established in India?

India’s atomic-power plants are: (I) Rana Pratap Sagar atomic-power plant (Rajasthan), (ii) Tarapur power plant (iii) Kalpakkam atomic-power plant at Kalpakkam (iv) Narora atomic-power station at Narora.

  1. When did India explode her first underground nuclear device?

India exploded her first underground nuclear device on May 18, 1974, at Pokhran (Rajasthan).

  1. What is the function of CIRUS?

CIRUS was built in 1960. It is a 40 megawatt Canada-Indian reactor, and is being used to produce a wide-range of radio isotopes. It is also used for researches in nuclear physics, chemistry, biology and medicine.

  1. What are the five nuclear reactors working at BARC, Trombay?

These are Apsara, Zerlina, Purnima, Cirus and Dhruva.

  1. When was Apsara commissioned and what are its functions?

Apsara was commissioned on August 4, 1956. It is one megawatt swimming pool type reactor. It produces radio isotopes to irradiate biological samples etc.

  1. What is India’s biggest achievement in nuclear industry?

Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam marks a milestone in the building of advanced and indigenous nuclear industry. It was commissioned in 1985. It is a 13-megawatt reactor. It uses a new type of fuel – a plutonium carbie combination.

  1. What do you know about Zerlina?

Zerlina (Zero Energy Reactor for Lattice Investigations and New Assemblies), India’s third research reactor, became critical on January 14, 1961. It is used for studies of Uranium Heavy Water Lattices.

  1. What for Purnima is being used?

Purnima (Plutonium Reactor for Neutronic Investigation in Multiplying Assemblies) became critical on May 22, 1972. It is a zero energy fast nuclear reactor.

  1. How many isotopes are being produced by Apsara and Cirus?

These two reactors are producing about 350 different types of radio isotopes. They are being exported to France, Sweden, Hungary, Denmark, Australia, etc.

  1. When did Dhruva reactor become critical?

Dhruva reactor at Trombay became critical in 1985. It is a high-power reactor and its main functions are isotopes production, and fuel material testing. It is also being used for basic research in physical, chemistry and biology.

  1. Where are India’s five famous observatories?

India’s five famous observatories are at Kodaikanal, Hyderabad, Ooty, Nainital and Kavalur.Q. Where is the largest reflecting telescope of Asia?

It is in the Kavalur Observatory (India). It is a 93-inch (236cm) reflecting telescope and has been developed indigenously.

The 1857 Indian Mutiny

We could subdue the mutiny of 1857, formidable as it was, because it spread through only a part of the army, because people did not actively sympathize with it, and because it was possible to find native Indian races who would fight on our side. But the moment a mutiny is but threatened, which shall be no mere mutiny, but the expression of a universal feeling of nationality, at that moment all hope is at an end, as all desire should be at an end, of our preserving our Empire.” — Sir John Seeley (quoted by Tarling)

The 1857 rebellion, which began with the mutiny of Indian troops stationed near Delhi, had several chief results:

a year-long insurrection that changed attitudes — both British and Indian — towards British rule of India dissolution of the British British East India Company beginning of the British Raj, the period during which the U. K. directly ruled the Indian subcontinent the end of the Mughal Empire after the British exiled Emperor Bahadur Shah to Burma The revolt, mutiny, or rebellion, which some have seen as the first Indian war of independence, began on May 10, 1857. According to “The Uprising of 1857: A Great Divide in South Asian History” [US Library of Congress website],

Indian soldiers of the British Indian Army, drawn mostly from Muslim units from Bengal, mutinied at the Meerut cantonment near Delhi, starting a year-long insurrection against the British. The mutineers then marched to Delhi and offered their services to the Mughal emperor, whose predecessors had suffered an ignoble defeat 100 years earlier at Plassey. . . . The insurrection was sparked by the introduction of cartridges rumored to have been greased with pig or cow fat, which was offensive to the religious beliefs of Muslim and Hindu sepoys (soldiers). In a wider sense, the insurrection was a reaction by the indigenous population to rapid changes in the social order engineered by the British over the preceding century and an abortive attempt by the Muslims to resurrect a dying political order.

After the mutineers (or patriots) finally surrendered on June 20, 1858, the British ended both the East India Company and the Mughal Empire, sending the deposed Emperor Bahadur Shah to exile in Burma. With the coming of the Raj, a British governor general (or “Viceroy” as he was known when representing the British crown) ruled India, and he in turn reported to the secretary of state for India, a member of Prime Minister’s cabinet (LoC Website).

The mutiny, which ended by destroying the Mughal Empire, had major effects on the U. K. as well, forcing the British government to assume direct control over the Indian subcontinent. At home, many English, who felt betrayed by peoples they thought they had befriended, experienced the revolt as a trauma. Newspapers of the period emphasized atrocities, particularly toward women and children, committed by the rebels, and these became the subjects of very well known contemporary paintings.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, the British Empire was the largest and richest empire in the world. This naturally gave rise to the belief that the British themselves were the chosen race chosen to bring the benefits of western civilization to the backward areas of the world. This white supremacy was enforced in Britain’s colonies, especially India, and naturally, native opposition was frequent. But most were unsuccessful due to the superior technology and organization of the British army.

In 1857, the Indian Mutiny broke out and with it, the British colonial administration fought its greatest imperial war. Thanks to the efficiency of British media coverage, the development of the mutiny was followed avidly by the British public. The British saw the India Mutiny as a fight against “barbarians who were rejecting the benefits of civilization” but as the suppression developed, the atrocities committed by both sides became obvious. The British armies swept across northern India in an enraged and cruel rampage of rape, murder and savagery, which shocked Victorian society.

The Indian Mutiny was even called the ‘epic of the Race’ by historian Sir Charles Crostwaithe and though in the modern context, this sounds ridiculous but it was nothing more than an illustration of Victorian British confidence and arrogance.

The Background, 1857

British presence in India stretched all the way from the seventeenth century when the East India Company, EIC, acquired its first territory in Bombay to 1947 when India and Pakistan were granted self rule. Over the years the EIC expanded by both direct (force) and indirect (economic) means eventually, chasing the French out (after the War of Plassey, 1757) and dominating the whole of the Indian sub-continent.

British rule in India rested on its military might and as long as the British army in India was invincible, British rule was assured. This of course depended on the Indian army, which consisted of Indian troops under British officers.

British rule inevitable brought western influences into India. The spread of Christianity was to cause great unease among the Indians. Evangelical Christian missionaries had little understanding and respect for India’s ancient faiths, and their efforts to convert many natives brought clashes with the local religious establishments. As the missionaries were often British citizens, the Colonial administration often had to intervene to protect them, which naturally gave an impression of official support for Christianity.

Against this backdrop of uneasiness the mutiny erupted in 1857. But the spark was interestingly not so much of religious clashes, but the grease used in the new Enfield rifle. The cartridge of the Enfield rifle was heavily greased — with animal fat, to facilitate easier loading into the muzzle. Rumors began to circular among Sepoys that the grease was a mixture of cow (sacred to Hindus) and pig (abhorrent to Moslems) fat. As such, biting such a cartridge would break the caste of the Hindu sepoys and defile the Moslems. Their British officers realized their mistake and changed the grease to beeswax or vegetable oils, but in the atmosphere of distrust, the mutiny seemed inevitable.


Meerut witnessed the first serious outbreak of the Indian Mutiny when angry sepoys broke open the town jail and released their comrades, who had refused to bite the new cartridges. Accompanied by a mob from the bazaar, the mutineers then poured into the European settlement and slaughtered any Europeans or Indian Christians there. Whole families, men, women, children and servants, were killed on sight. The cantonment was then burned, and the mutineers fled to Delhi and proclaimed Bahadur Shah, the last of the Moguls emperor.

This, the mutineers had hoped to create a general rising against the British, and they turned to Bahadur Shah to lead them. Forced to cooperate, Bahadur Shah accepted the allegiance of the mutineers and became the titular leader of the Indian Mutiny. Most of the Europeans living in Delhi were murdered along with Indian Christians.

The massacre at Meerut provoked a strong British respond. In mid-August, British forces, reinforced by Gurkhas from Nepal and the Queen’s regiments fresh from the Crimea War began a bloody campaign to re-establish British rule in India. After a siege, Delhi fell to the British. The Emperor’s three sons, Mizra Moghul, Mizra Khizr Sultan and Mizra Abu Bakr along with the mutineers were executed.

The Aftermath

By the first six months of 1858, the British managed to regain their losses in spite of heavy resistance from the rebels. With the relief of Lucknow, the possibility of British defeat became remote. The British saw themselves as dispensors of divine justice, and given the initial atrocities committed by the mutineers, their cruelties were simply repayment in kind. Every mutineer was a “black-faced, blood-crazed savage” which do not deserve mercy from the British troops. Their fellow countrymen derided some British like the Governor Lord Canning, who spoke of restraint as “weak” and “indifferent to the sufferings of British subjects”. In fact, Canning became known contemptuously as ‘clemency Canning’.

After the British recovery, few sepoys survived as the British soldiers bayoneted any who survived the battle. Whole villages were hanged for some real or imagined sympathy for the mutineers, and the widespread looting of Indian property, religious or secular, was common and endorsed. Later, convicted mutineers were lashed to the muzzles of cannon and had a roundshot fired through their body. It was a cruel punishment intended to blow the body to pieces, thus depriving the victim of any hope of entering paradise. Indians called this punishment “the devil’s wind”.

Apart from the fury of the British, another significant impact for India was the abolishment of the EIC. The British Parliament finally realized that it was inappropriate for a private company like the EIC to exercise such enormous powers and control a land the size of India. In 1858, the East India Company was dissolved, despite a valiant defense of its purported achievements by John Stuart Mill, and the administration of India became the responsibility of the Crown. Direct rule on India was exercised through the India Office, a British department of state and till 1947, India became known as the Raj, the Crown Jewel of Queen Victoria’s extensive empire.

Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of a highly developed urban civilisation in ancient India, that stretched across approximately 1520 kilometres, extending from the area on the upper Sutlaj in contemporary Punjab to Lothal in Gujarat. Historians are of the view that this civilisation flourished in the third millennium before the birth of Christ.

It is known by the name of the two of its great cities – Harappa and Mohenjodaro situated on the left and the right bank respectively of the river Ravi in Punjab. The two cities were built on a similar plan – houses constructed with standard burnt bricks arranged in squares, along roads intersecting at right angles.

The houses varied in size but were all based on the same plan – a small courtyard surrounded by rooms with entrances in side alleys, often multistoried with no windows opening out to the street. The houses had bathrooms and the drains flowing out were connected to covered sewers with soak-pits. This unique sewage system is amongst the most impressive achievements of the Indus people and sets them apart from all other ancient civilisations.

By about 1500 B.C. an important change began to occur in the northern half of the Indian sub-continent. The Harappa culture in the Indus Valley had declined by about 1750 B.C, and the stage was being set for a second and more continuous urbanisation in the Ganges Valley.

The earliest literary source that sheds light on India’s past is the Rig Veda. It is difficult to date this work with any accuracy on the basis of tradition and ambiguous astronomical information contained in the hymns. It is most likely that Rig Veda was composed between 1,500 B.C. and 1,000 B.C.

The people who composed these evocative hymns to nature and celebrated life exuberantly referred to themselves as Aryas usually anglicised as Aryan meaning ‘superior’.

The 6th Century B.C. was a period of great ferment in India. The kingdom of Magadh -one of the 16 great janapadas – polities – had established paramountcy over other kingdoms of the Ganges Valley. This was the time when Buddhism and Jainism emerged as popular protestant movements to pose a serious challenge to Brahmanic orthodoxy. The fluid political situation, made it possible for Chandragupta Maurya (reign – 322 – 298 B.C.) to oust the oppressive ruler of Magadh and found his own dynasty.

The most famous of the Mauryas is Ashoka the Great (reign – 273 – 232 B.C.). He extended the boundaries of his empire considerably – stretching from Kashmir and Peshawar in the North and Northwest to Mysore in the South and Orissa in the East – but his fame rests not so much on military conquests as on his celebrated renunciation of war. After witnessing the carnage at the battle field of Kalinga (269 B.C.) in Orissa, Ashoka resolved to dedicate himself to Dhamma – or righteousness.

Ashoka died around 232 B.C. and the empire began to disintegrate under weak successors. Pushyamitra Shunga, a Brahmin general usurped the throne after slaying the last Maurya king and presided over a loosely federal polity. In subsequent centuries India suffered a series of invasions, and in the absence of a strong central authority, often fell under the spell of foreign rulers – Indo Bactrians, the Sakas and others.

For the next four hundred years, India remained politically disunited and weak. It was repeatedly raided and plundered by foreigners. Stability was restored by the Guptas. Exploits of Samudra Gupta (reign – 335 – 380 A.D.) – an illustrious ruler of this line – are recorded on a stone inscription at Allahabad.

It was Chandra Gupta II (reign – 380 – 412 A.D.) – Samudra Gupta’s successor – who finally defeated the Sakas and re-established a strong central authority. His reign registered the high watermark in Indian culture. His accomplishments in war and peace were glorious enough for him to claim the title Vikramaditya – the resplendent, great and good king of legends. Fa-hien, a Chinese traveller who was in India from 399 – 414 A.D. has left an interesting account of contemporary India. This age of peace and prosperity witnessed an unprecedented flowering of art, literature and the sciences.

Kalidas, the famous Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of Abhijnana Shankuntalam, Kumarsambhavam and Meghadutam is believed to have adorned the Gupta court. Mathematicians like Aryabhatta and astronomers like Varahmihir lived during this period. The dazzling wall paintings of Ajanta too are traced back to this era. This period also saw the beginning of Hindu temple architecture.

The twilight of the Gupta Empire saw the setting in of decay. Powerful feudal governors in the provinces declared their independence. Trade and commerce suffered and social evils crept in. There was only a brief afterglow in the time of Harshavardhan (reign – 604 – 647 A.D.) – of Kannauj – who is famous for his philanthrophy and patronage of Buddhism. Himself an accomplished writer, he encouraged eminent dramatists like Bana. A Chinese traveller Huen-tsang visited India from (629 – 645 A.D.) during the rule of Harshavardhan. His account gives us an opportunity to note the changes that had taken place in the lives of the Indian people since the days of the Guptas.

In the Deccan, the Cholas ruled over what today are the districts of Thanjavur and Tiruchirapally. In the 2nd Century B.C. a Chola prince conquered Sri Lanka. The Pandyas reigned around present day Tirunelvelli and Madurai. A Pandyan king sent an ambassador to the court of the Roman emperor Augustus in first Century B.C. The territory under the Cheras was what constitutes the present day central and northern Kerala.

Pallavas of Kanchi rose to prominence in the 4th Century A.D. and ruled unchallenged for about four hundred years. The Nayanar and Alvar saint poets belong to this period. The gemlike shore temples at Mahabalipuram date to this period.

The Cholas overthrew the Pallavas in the 9th Century and regained political primacy in south India. The exquisitely crafted Chola bronzes – the resplendent Natraja – the Dancing Shiva – have introduced the world to the glory of the Cholas. The tide of political fortunes turned once again in the 13th Century to make the Pandyas dominant. Their kingdom became a great centre of international trade. Art, literature and culture flourished under generous patronage. The 15th Century saw the decline of the Pandyas.

Foreign invasions had little impact on the life in southern India and this region remained unaffected by political upheavals that convulsed the north.

iNDIA 400,000 BC to 2003

Prehistoric Period: ca. 400,000 BC – 3000 BC

  • 400,000 – 200,000 BC: Interglacial period : Soan Valley and in south India, chiefly around Madras
  • 200,000 – 8,000 BC: Late ICE Age, which lasted till 8000 BC
  • 8,000 BC – 4,000 BC: the end of the Ice Age, began an intermediate stage called as Mesolithic Age [Late Stone Age] which lasted up to 4000 B.C.
  • 4,000 BC – 3,000 BC: Neolithic Age [New Stone Age] which lasted from 4000 B.C. to 3000 B.C was the last phase of the Stone Age

Indus / Saraswathi Valley Civilisation: ca. 3000-1200 BC

ca. 3000-2600: Indus Valley civilization: Harappan civilization

ca. 1200-500 BC: Vedic Era

ca. 550-100 BC: Rivals to Hinduism

ca. 322-185 BC: Mauryan Empire

ca. AD 320-540: Gupta Era

  • ca. 320-335: Chandragupta I
  • ca. 335-376: Samudragupta
  • ca. 376-415: Chandragupta II
  • ca. 454-500: Hun Invasions
  • ca. 540: End of Gupta Dynasty

ca. AD 500-1001: Era of Political instability

  • ca. 540: Rise of Chalukyas at Vatapi
  • ca. 606-646: Harsha of Kanauj
  • ca. 700-800: Buddhism spreads to Tibet and Nepal
  • 711: Arabs invade Sind
  • ca. 750: Rise of imperial Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas
  • 760: Palas in Bengal
  • ca. 846: Rise of Cholas and defeat of Pallavis
  • ca. 970: Revival of Chalukyas and defeat of Rashtrakutas

1000-1750: Period of Muslim dominance

  • 1001: Raids by Mahmud of Ghanzi
  • 1206-1290: Slave Dynasty and Beginning of Delhi Sultanate
  • 1290-1320: Khalji Sultanate
  • 1320-1413: Tughlug Sultanate
  • 1414-1451: Sayyid Sultanate
  • 1451-1526: Lodi Sultanate
  • 1498: Vasco da Gama arrives in India
  • 1483-1757: The Mughal Empire
    • 1526-1530: Reign of Babur
    • 1556-1605: Reign of Akbar
    • 1600: British East India Company is chartered
    • 1605-1627: Reign of Jahangir
    • 1628-1658: Reign of Shah Jahan
    • 1658-1707: Reign of Aurangzeb
    • 1744-1748: War between French and British

The arts in India date back thousands of years. India’s earliest known civilization, the Indus Valley civilization (about 2500-1700 BC) produced fine sculpted figures and seals. The basis for Indian music may well be traced to the chanting of the Vedas, the Hindu sacred texts of the 1st millennium BC. Architecture from the time of the Buddha (563?-483? BC) includes stone structures called stupas that resemble earlier wooden ones. Much of Indian literature has its roots in the great Sanskrit epics, Mahabharata and Ramayana, which date from the 3rd century BC. Secular literature in the form of story and drama has been important since the classical age of the 4th century AD. Royal patronage of these art forms continued throughout history, and the government of independent India also supports the arts with national academies for music, art, drama, literature, and other programs. There are yearly prizes for work in all the Indian languages, and in the several musical, dramatic, and art traditions. The government’s national radio network is a major employer of musicians.

Keith Bellows said: There are some parts of the world that, once visited, get into your heart and won’t go. For me, India is such a place. When I first visited, I was stunned by the richness of the land, by its lush beauty and exotic architecture, by its ability to overload the senses with the pure, concentrated intensity of its colors, smells, tastes, and sounds. It was as if all my life I had been seeing the world in black and white and, when brought face-to-face with India, experienced everything re-rendered in brilliant technicolor.

Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.

Mark Twain said: India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only.

French scholar Romain Rolland said: If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India.

Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA said: India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border.

We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made!” –Albert Einstein

“If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India!” –French scholar Romaine Rolland

“India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most astrictive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only!” –Mark Twain

“So far as I am able to judge, nothing has been left undone, either by man or nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Nothing seems to have been forgotten, nothing overlooked.” –Mark Twain

“She (India) has left indelible imprints on one fourth of the human race in the course of a long succession of centuries. She has the right to reclaim … her place amongst the great nations summarizing and symbolizing the spirit of humanity. From Persia to the Chinese sea, from the icy regions of Siberia to Islands of Java and Borneo, India has propagated her beliefs, her tales, and her civilization!” — Sylvia Levi

“India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border!” — Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA

“Civilizations have arisen in other parts of the world. In ancient and modern times, wonderful ideas have been carried forward from one race to another…But mark you, my friends, it has been always with the blast of war trumpets and the march of embattled cohorts. Each idea had to be soaked in a deluge of blood….. Each word of power had to be followed by the groans of millions, by the wails of orphans, by the tears of widows. This, many other nations have taught; but India for thousands of years peacefully existed. Here activity prevailed when even Greece did not exist… Even earlier, when history has no record, and tradition dares not peer into the gloom of that intense past, even from until now, ideas after ideas have marched out from her, but every word has been spoken with a blessing behind it and peace before it. We, of all nations of the world, have never been a conquering race, and that blessing is on our head, and therefore we live….!” — Swami Vivekananda, Indian Philosopher.

All the above is just the TIP of the iceberg, the list could be endless. BUT, if we don’t see even a glimpse of that great India in the India That we see today, it clearly means that we are not working up to our Potential and that if we do, we could once again; be an ever shining and Inspiring country setting a bright path for rest of the world to follow. I Hope you enjoyed it and work towards the welfare of INDIA.

A person who misses a chance and the monkey who misses its branch can’t be saved. Source: (India)

Guy Sorman:

Temporal notions in Europe were overturned by an India rooted in eternity. The Bible had been the yardstick for measuring time, but the infinitely vast time cycles of India suggested that the world was much older than anything the Bible spoke of. It seem as if the Indian mind was better prepared for the chronological mutations of Darwinian evolution and astrophysics.

You cannot be a Hindu fundamentalist. It does not mean anything…The concept of fundamentalism does not exist in Hinduism. No one man embodies the spirit of universalism, it runs through the whole of India and there is a place for all religious groups and communities. The spiritual message of India is her capacity to let so many divergent practices coexist. The Enlightenment philosophers seemed to have grasped this profound originality…This the real message of India.

John Archibald Wheeler:

I like to think that someone will trace how the deepest thinking of India made its way to Greece and from there to the philosophy of our times.

Jean-Sylvain Bailly:

The motion of the stars calculated by the Hindus before some 4500 years vary not even a single minute from the tables of Cassine and Meyer (used in the 19-th century). The Indian tables give the same annual variation of the moon as the discovered by Tycho Brahe – a variation unknown to the school of Alexandria and also to the Arabs who followed the calculations of the school… “The Hindu systems of astronomy are by far the oldest and that from which the Egyptians, Greek, Romans and – even the Jews derived from the Hindus their knowledge.

Marcus Leatherdale:

Hinduism has a playful aspect which I’ve not experienced in any other religion. Its not so righteous or sober as is Christianity, nor is it puritanical. That’s one of the reasons I enjoy India. I wake up in the morning, and I’m very content.

You’d have to be brain dead to live in India and not be affected by Hinduism. It’s not like Christianity in America, where you feel it only on Sunday mornings … if you go to church at all. Hinduism is an on-going daily procedure. You live it, you breathe it.

Albert Einstein:

When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.

We owe a lot to Indians who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.

Alan Watts:

To the philosophers of India, however, Relativity is no new discovery, just as the concept of light years is no matter for astonishment to people used to thinking of time in millions of kalpas, (A kalpa is about 4,320,000 years). The fact that the wise men of India have not been concerned with technological applications of this knowledge arises from the circumstance that technology is but one of innumerable ways of applying it.

It is, indeed, a remarkable circumstance that when Western civilization discovers Relativity it applies it to the manufacture of atom-bombs, whereas Oriental civilization applies it to the development of new states of consciousness.

There is an unrecognized but mighty taboo–our tacit conspiracy to ignore who, or what, we really are. Briefly, the thesis is that the prevalent sensation of oneself as a separate ego enclosed in a bag of skin is a hallucination which accords neither with Western science nor with the experimental philosophy religions of the East–in particular the central and germinal Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism. This hallucination underlies the misuse of technology for the violent subjugation of man’s natural environment and, consequently, its eventual destruction. It is rather a cross-fertilization of Western science with an Eastern intuition.

Julius Robert Oppenheimer:

Access to the Vedas is the greatest privilege this century may claim over all previous centuries.

George Bernard Shaw:

The Indian way of life provides the vision of the natural, real way of life. We veil ourselves with unnatural masks. On the face of India are the tender expressions which carry the mark of the Creator’s hand.

Will Durant:

It is true that even across the Himalayan barrier India has sent to us such unquestionable gifts as grammar and logic, philosophy and fables, hypnotism and chess, and above all our numerals and our decimal system. But these are not the essence of her spirit; they are trifles compared to what we may learn from her in the future.

India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe’s languages: she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all. Nothing should more deeply shame the modern student than the recency and inadequacy of his acquaintance with India….This is the India that patient scholarship is now opening up like a new intellectual continent to that Western mind which only yesterday thought civilization an exclusive Western thing.

Perhaps in return for conquest, arrogance and spoilation, India will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of the mature mind, the quiet content of the unacquisitive soul, the calm of the understanding spirit, and a unifying, a pacifying love for all living things.

Arnold Joseph Toynbee:

It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a Western beginning will have to have an Indian ending if it is not to end in self-destruction of the human race. At this supremely dangerous moment in human history , the only way of salvation is the ancient Hindu way. Here we have the attitude and spirit that can make it possible for the human race to grow together in to a single family.

There may or may not be only one single absolute truth and only one single ultimate way of salvation. We do not know. But we do know that there are more approaches to truth than one, and more means of salvation than one. This is a hard saying for adherents of the higher religions of the Judaic family (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), but it is a truism for Hindus. The spirit of mutual good-will, esteem, and veritable love … is the traditional spirit of the religions of the Indian family. This is one of India’s gifts to the world.

India is not only the heir of her own religious traditions; she is also the residuary legatee of the Ancient Mediterranean World’s religious traditions. Religion cuts far deeper, and, at the religious level, India has not been a recipient; she has been a giver. About half the total number of the living higher religions are of Indian origin.

I guess that both the West and the world are getting to turn away from man – worshipping ideologies – Communism and secular individualism alike – and become converted to an Oriental religion coming neither from Russia nor from the West. I guess that this will be the Christian religion that came to the Greeks and the Romans from Palestine, with one or two elements in traditional Christianity discarded and replaced by a new element from India, I expect and hope that this avatar of Christianity will include the vision of God as being Love. But I also expect and hope that it will discard the other traditional Christian vision of God as being a jealous god, and that it will reject the self-glorification of this jealous god’s “chosen people” as being unique. This is where India comes in, with her belief that there may be more than one illuminating and saving approach to the mystery of the universe.

Ralph Waldo Emerson:

The Indian teaching, through its clouds of legends, has yet a simple and grand religion, like a queenly countenance seen through a rich veil. It teaches to speak truth, love others, and to dispose trifles. The East is grand – and makes Europe appear the land of trifles. …all is soul and the soul is Vishnu …cheerful and noble is the genius of this cosmogony. Hari is always gentle and serene – he translates to heaven the hunter who has accidentally shot him in his human form, he pursues his sport with boors and milkmaids at the cow pens; all his games are benevolent and he enters into flesh to relieve the burdens of the world.

When India was explored and the wonderful riches of Indian theological literature found that dispelled once and for all the dream about Christianity being the sole revelation.

Nature makes a Brahmin of me presently.

Friedrich Mejer:

It will no longer remain to be doubted that the priests of Egypt and the sages of Greece have drawn directly from the original well of India, that it is to the banks of the Ganges and the Indus that our hearts feel drawn as by some hidden urge.

Towards the Orient, to the banks of the Ganges and the Indus, it is there our hearts feel drawn by some hidden urge – it is there that all the dark presentiments point which lie in the depths of our heart…In the Orient, the heavens poured forth into the earth.

Herman Hesse:

It is not only a country and something geographical, but the home and the youth of the soul, the everywhere and nowhere, the oneness of all times.

Annie Wood Besant:

After a study of some forty years and more of the great religions of the world, I find none so perfect ,none so scientific, none so philosophical and no so spiritual that the great religion known by the name of Hinduism. Make no mistake, without Hinduism, India has no future. Hinduism is the soil in to which India’s roots are stuck and torn out of that she will inevitably wither as a tree torn out from its place. And if Hindus do not maintain Hinduism who shall save it? If India’s own children do not cling to her faith who shall guard it? India alone can save India and India and Hinduism are one.

This is the India of which I speak – the India which, as I said, is to me the Holy Land. For those who, though born for this life in a Western land and clad in a Western body, can yet look back to earlier incarnations in which they drank the milk of spiritual wisdom from the breast of their true mother – they must feel ever the magic of her immemorial past, must dwell ever under the spell of her deathless fascination; for they are bound to India by all the sacred memories of their past; and with her, too, are bound up all the radiant hopes of their future, a future which they know they will share with her who is their true mother in the soul-life.

Friedrich Nietzsche:

One draws a breath of relief when coming out of the Christian sick-house and dungeon atmosphere into this healthier, higher wider world. How paltry the ‘New Testament’ is compared with Manu, how ill it smells! One sees immediately that it has a real philosophy behind it, in it, not merely an ill-smelling Jewish acidity compounded of rabbinisim and superstition…….All the things upon which Christianity vents its abysmal vulgarity, procreation, for example, woman, marriage, are here treated seriously, with reverence, with love and trust.

Christianity has been up till now mankind’s greatest misfortune.

Rudyard Kipling:

Now it is not good for the Christian’s health to hustle the Hindu brown For the Christian riles and the Hindu smiles and weareth the Christian down ; And the end of the fight is a tombstone while with the name of the late deceased and the epitaph drear , ” A fool lies here who tried to hustle the east”.

Koenraad Elst:

The struggle of Hindu society is not primarily with the Muslim community. The most important opponents of Hindu society today are not the Islamic communal leaders, but the interiorized colonial rulers of India, the alienated English-educated and mostly Left-leaning elite that noisily advertises its “secularism.” It is these people who impose anti-Hindu policies on Hindu society, and who keep Hinduism down and prevent it from proudly raising its head after a thousand years of oppression.

The Hindu fight is not at all with Muslims; the fight is between Hindus anxious to renew themselves in the spirit of their civilization, and the state, Indian in name and not in spirit and the political and intellectual class trapped in the debris the British managed to bury us under before they left.

The worst torment for Hindu society today is this mental slavery, this sense of inferiority which Leftist intellectuals, through their power positions in education and the media, and their direct influence on the public and political arena, keep on inflicting on the Hindu mind.

Pride in being Indian means, for 99%, pride in Hinduism. So, this legitimate pride has to be nourished with broad and in-depth knowledge of Hindu culture. The two enemies of this effort are the pseudo-secularist morbidity that glorifies the destroyers of Hindu culture, and discourages its study altogether…

Hindus and likewise India make it all the worse for themselves by simply being so tolerant.

Salman Rushdie:

I come from an Indian Muslim family, but I experience India as a very pleasant country, whereas in Pakistan I feel ill at ease. You would think it should be the reverse. But in spite of its many defects, India is a rich and open society, while Pakistan is culturally an impoverished and closed society.

Mark Twain:

This is indeed India!The land of dreams and romance, of fabulous wealth and fabulous poverty,of splendour and rags, of palaces and hovels, of famine and pestilence, of genii and giants and Aladdin lamps, of tigers and elephants, the cobra and the jungle, the country of hundred nations and a hundred tongues, of a thousand religions and two million gods, cradle of the human race, birthplace of human speech, mother of history, grandmother of legend, great-grandmother of traditions, whose yesterday’s bear date with the modering antiquities fo the rest of nations-the one sole country under the sun that is endowed with an imperishable interest for alien prince and alien peasant, for lettered and ignorant, wise and fool, rich and poor, bond and free, the one land that all men desire to see, and having seen once, by even a glimpse, would not give that glimpse for the shows of all the rest of the world combined.

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