Knowledge & Tricks



# 10. Titanic – $150 Million

The sinking of the Titanic is possibly the most famous accident in the world. But it barely makes our list of top 10 most expensive. On April 15, 1912, the Titanic sank on its maiden voyage and was considered to be the most luxurious ocean liner ever built. Over 1,500 people lost their lives when the ship ran into an iceberg and sunk in frigid waters. The ship cost $7 million to build ($150 million in today ‘ s dollars).

Catastrophes in History12 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

 

# 9. Tanker Truck vs Bridge – $358 Million

On August 26, 2004, a car collided with a tanker truck containing 32,000 liters of fuel on the Wiehltal Bridge in Germany . The tanker crashed through the guardrail and fell 90 feet off the A4 Autobahn resulting in a huge explosion and fire which destroyed the load-bearing ability of the bridge. Temporary repairs cost $40 million and the cost to replace the bridge is estimated at $318 Million.

Catastrophes in History1 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

 

# 8. MetroLink Crash – $500 Million

On September 12, 2008, in what was one of the worst train crashes in California history, 25 people were killed when a Metrolink commuter train crashed head-on into a Union Pacific freight train in Los Angeles . It is thought that the Metrolink train may have run through a red signal while the conductor was busy text messaging.. Wrongful death lawsuits are expected to cause $500 million in losses for Metrolink.

Catastrophes in History4 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 7. B-2 Bomber Crash – $1.4 Billion

Here we have our first billion dollar accident (and we ‘ re only #7 on the list). This B-2 stealth bomber crashed shortly after taking off from an air base in Guam on February 23, 2008. Investigators blamed distorted data in the flight control computers caused by moisture in the system. This resulted in the aircraft making a sudden nose-up move which made the B-2 stall and crash. This was 1 of only 21 ever built and was the most expensive aviation accident in history. Both pilots were able to eject to safety.

Catastrophes in History5 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

Catastrophes in History6 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 6. Exxon Valdez – $2.5 Billion

The Exxon Valdez oil spill was not a large one in relation to the world ‘ s biggest oil spills, but it was a costly one due to the remote location of Prince William Sound (accessible only by helicopter and boat). On March 24, 1989, 10..8 million gallons of oil was spilled when the ship ‘ s master, Joseph Hazelwood, left the controls and the ship crashed into a Reef. The cleanup cost Exxon $2..5 billion.

Catastrophes in History7 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 5. Piper Alpha Oil Rig – $3.4 Billion

The world ‘ s worst off-shore oil disaster. At one time, it was the world ‘ s single largest oil producer, spewing out 317,000 barrels of oil per day. On July 6, 1988, as part of routine maintenance, technicians removed and checked safety valves which were essential in preventing dangerous build-up of liquid gas. There were 100 identical safety valves which were checked. Unfortunately, the technicians made a mistake and forgot to replace one of them. At 10 PM that same night, a technician pressed a start button for the liquid gas pumps and the world ‘ s most expensive oil rig accident was set in motion.

Within 2 hours, the 300 foot platform was engulfed in flames. It eventually collapsed, killing 167 workers and resulting in $3.4 Billion in damages.

Catastrophes in History8 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 4. Challenger Explosion – $5.5 Billion

The Space Shuttle Challenger was destroyed 73 seconds after takeoff due on January 28, 1986 due to a faulty O-ring. It failed to seal one of the joints, allowing pressurized gas to reach the outside. This in turn caused the external tank to dump its payload of liquid hydrogen causing a massive explosion. The cost of replacing the Space Shuttle was $2 billion in 1986 ($4.5 billion in today ‘ s dollars). The cost of investigation, problem correction, and replacement of lost equipment cost $450 million from 1986-1987 ($1 Billion in today ‘ s dollars).

Catastrophes in History9 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 3. Prestige Oil Spill – $12 Billion

On November 13, 2002, the Prestige oil tanker was carrying 77,000 tons of heavy fuel oil when one of its twelve tanks burst during a storm off Galicia , Spain . Fearing that the ship would sink, the captain called for help from Spanish rescue workers, expecting them to take the ship into harbour. However, pressure from local authorities forced the captain to steer the ship away from the coast. The captain tried to get help from the French and Portuguese authorities, but they too ordered the ship away from their shores. The storm eventually took its toll on the ship resulting in the tanker splitting in half and releasing 20 million gallons oil into the sea..

According to a report by the Pontevedra Economist Board, the total cleanup cost $12 billion.

Catastrophes in History10 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 2. Space Shuttle Columbia – $13 Billion

The Space Shuttle Columbia was the first space worthy shuttle in NASA ‘ s orbital fleet. It was destroyed during re-entry over Texas on February 1, 2003 after a hole was punctured in one of the wings during launch 16 days earlier. The original cost of the shuttle was $2 Billion in 1978. That comes out to $6.3 Billion in today ‘ s dollars. $500 million was spent on the investigation, making it the costliest aircraft accident investigation in history. The search and recovery of debris cost $300 million.

In the end, the total cost of the accident (not including replacement of the shuttle) came out to $13 Billion according to the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics..

Catastrophes in History11 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

# 1. Chernobyl – $200 Billion

On April 26, 1986, the world witnessed the costliest accident in history. The Chernobyl disaster has been called the biggest socio-economic catastrophe in peacetime history. 50% of the area of Ukraine is in some way contaminated. Over 200,000 people had to be evacuated and resettled while 1.7 million people were directly affected by the disaster. The death toll attributed to Chernobyl , including people who died from cancer years later, is estimated at 125,000. The total costs including cleanup, resettlement, and compensation to victims has been estimated to be roughly $200 Billion. The cost of a new steel shelter for the Chernobyl nuclear plant will cost $2 billion alone. The accident was officially attributed to power plant operators who violated plant procedures and were ignorant of the safety requirements needed.

Catastrophes in History2 10 Most Expensive Catastrophes in History

 

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1) Einstein got bad grades in school.

Generations of children have been heartened by the thought that this Nobel Prize winner did badly at school, but they’re sadly mistaken. In fact, he did very well at school, especially in science and maths (unsurprisingly).


2) Mice like cheese

Mice enjoy food rich in sugar as well as peanut butter and breakfast cereals. So a Snickers bar would go down much better than a lump of cheddar.

3) Napoleon was short.

He was actually around 5ft 7, completely average for the 18th/19th century.

4) Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.

Edison invented a lot of things – in fact he’s one of the most famous inventors of all time – but the light bulb wasn’t one of them. What he did was develop a light bulb at the same time as the British man, Joseph Swan, who came up with it originally.

5) Lemmings throw themselves over cliffs to commit suicide

The poor old things are sometimes so desperate for food that they do, according to the BBC “jump over high ground into water”, but they aren’t committing group suicide.

6) Water flushes differently in different hemispheres

No it doesn’t. Sorry!

7) Humans evolved from apes

Darwin didn’t actually say this, but he’s been misreported ever since. What he did say was that we, and apes, and chimpanzees for that matter, had a common ancestor, once, a long, long time ago.

8) Vikings had horns/helmets with horns.

Vikings may have been buried with their helmets and with drinking horns. When they were dug up by the Victorians, they assumed that the helmets had horns.

9) Columbus believed the earth was flat

He may not have known how big the world was, but he wasn’t worrying about falling off the edge of it.

10) Different parts of the tongue detect different tastes

You do have different taste buds on your tongue and some are more sensitive than others. But they aren’t divided into perfect, easy-to-teach sections.

 


Know everything about a women
Fully reveals the shocking truths
 
Their is no book made till date that fully understands a women.

Bindisha Sarang,Outlook Money

29fake1

Picture    this. You are  in a tearing  hurry and  you pay off  the taxi guy  as you reach  your  destination.  He gives you  the change,  which you  hastily dump in your purse and rush. Off you go to a shopping mall to buy something. You pay at the counter with the notes you just got from the taxi guy.

The salesperson looks at one of the notes with suspicion and gives you an eerie look. He checks the note against fluorescent blue light, smells, crushes and lick tests it. Yuck! You say in disgust. He declares it fake and asks you for another one.

Standing agape, you demand he takes it. He threatens to call the police. You run for your life.

You better do!

Rakesh Maria, joint police commissioner (crime), Mumbai City, says: “Possession of fake notes is an offence. One Rs 5 fake note is good enough [to be guilty of possession].” Well, now that you have a fake note in possession, you are already in trouble, technically! So what do you do now? Read on. . .

The legal tangle

With revenge on your mind, you determine to palm off the note to some unsuspecting fellow. In fact, if you think of palming off the note, you are not alone.

A quick dipstick survey shows 98 per cent people would do the same. But you better not do that, either.

Maria says, “It is unfortunate that people palm off fake notes. Palming off a fake note knowingly is also an offence.”

You definitely do not want to be caught doing that. In fact, intentionally passing on a fake currency note is a cognisable offence, which could lead to a prison term.

Cursing your fate, you decide to get rid of the bummer right away, but how? A friend who inadvertently received a fake note donated it to a temple. (Another dipstick survey at a few local religious places shows that nearly 20 per cent of donations are in form of either soiled or fake notes.)

That’s too low for you to do. Having run out of options, you march to a local bank, hoping to get an exchange.

The brutal truth

A Reserve Bank of India spokesperson says: “According to the RBI, when a customer takes a counterfeit note to a bank, the bank is supposed to impound it and give the customer an acknowledgement receipt.”

After impounding the note, they will stamp it ‘Counterfeit bank note impounded’ and give you an acknowledgement receipt, even if you refuse to countersign the same. You lose your money since a fake note is never paid for but confiscated.

But that’s not the end of the story.

The bank will file a First Information Report against your name at the local police station. A copy of this FIR is sent to the Forged Banknote Vigilance Cell at the bank’s head office.

The bank will be alert if you try to deposit any fake notes in the future. The police will look into the matter and carry routine investigation in order to get any further leads and zero down on the exact source.

Says Maria: “Crime does not differentiate between class. Even if you are a housewife who inadvertently has a fake note, we can investigate. Once we know that there is no mens rea (criminal intent), we just make a diary entry.”

Following the investigation, if you are found to be an inadvertent victim, the matter ends there.

But let’s get real! Do you, even as a customer who honestly walked into a bank after being palmed off a fake note, want to face the police?

What if you are planning for studies abroad, or an employment visa? Wouldn’t an FIR in your name have a negative influence on visa authorities? “No,” says Maria. However, a source from British consulate says: “. . . on verification, things like this may give a wrong impression about you to visa authorities.”

Are banks remiss?

Newspapers and news channels have been reporting about ATMs dispensing fake notes. Instances of bank staff diluting authentic currency with fakes have been reported, too.

Take the case of the chief cashier of a State Bank of India branch in Domariaganj, who was caught in the Rs 4 crore (Rs 40 million) fake currency scam. Such instances show that even banks can be a source of fake notes these days.

A cashier in a private bank says on the condition of anonymity: “We get customers who bring in fake notes, claiming that our ATM had dispensed it, but since they can’t prove it, we are helpless to do anything about it.”

Stories of banks brushing off responsibility, after dispensing fake notes via ATMs, is not uncommon.

The RBI has taken initiatives to deal with the dispensing of fake notes by ATMs. It has asked banks to set up note-sorting machines at all branches. In future, ATMs might be fitted with in-built detectors for fake currency notes.

The apex bank has proposed to introduce plastic notes, and it is common knowledge that improvisation in security features of the notes is an ongoing process.

Data from the RBI show that 398,111 counterfeit notes were detected during 2008-09 at the Reserve Bank’s offices and branches alone. It goes without saying that there are many more in circulation and the number will only increase.

The best defence is to be vigilant while handling cash, especially with Rs 1,000 and Rs 500 notes. And of course, pray that you never receive a fake note again!


113 Useful RUN Commands – Windows XP

Accessibility Controls access.cpl

Add Hardware Wizard hdwwiz.cpl

Add/Remove Programs appwiz.cpl

Administrative Tools control admintools

Automatic Updates wuaucpl.cpl

Bluetooth Transfer Wizard fsquirt

Calculator calc

Certificate Manager certmgr.msc

Character Map charmap

Check Disk Utility chkdsk

Clipboard Viewer clipbrd

Command Prompt cmd

Component Services dcomcnfg

Computer Management compmgmt.msc

Date and Time Properties timedate.cpl

DDE Shares ddeshare

Device Manager devmgmt.msc

Event Viewer eventvwr.msc

File Signature Verification Tool sigverif

Findfast findfast.cpl

Free Cell Card Game freecell

Game Controllers joy.cpl

Group Policy Editor gpedit.msc

Hearts Card Game mshearts

Iexpress Wizard iexpress

Indexing Service ciadv.msc

Internet Properties inetcpl.cpl

IP Configuration (Display Connection Configuration) ipconfig /all

IP Configuration (Display DNS Cache Contents) ipconfig /displaydns

IP Configuration (Delete DNS Cache Contents) ipconfig /flushdns

IP Configuration (Release All Connections) ipconfig /release

IP Configuration (Renew All Connections) ipconfig /renew

IP Configuration (Refreshes DHCP & Re-Registers DNS) ipconfig /registerdns

IP Configuration (Display DHCP Class ID) ipconfig /showclassid

IP Configuration (Modifies DHCP Class ID) ipconfig /setclassid

Java Control Panel (If Installed) jpicpl32.cpl

Java Control Panel (If Installed) javaws

Keyboard Properties control keyboard

Local Security Settings secpol.msc

Local Users and Groups lusrmgr.msc

Logs You Out Of Windows logoff

Microsoft Chat winchat

Minesweeper Game winmine

Mouse Properties control mouse

Mouse Properties main.cpl

Network Connections control netconnections

Network Connections ncpa.cpl

Network Setup Wizard netsetup.cpl

Notepad notepad

Nview Desktop Manager face=Verdana> nvtuicpl.cpl

Object Packager packager

ODBC Data Source Administrator odbccp32.cpl

On Screen Keyboard osk

Opens AC3 Filter (If Installed) ac3filter.cpl

Password Properties password.cpl

Performance Monitor perfmon.msc

Performance Monitor perfmon

Phone and Modem Options telephon.cpl

Power Configuration powercfg.cpl

Printers and Faxes control printers

Printers Folder printers

Private Character Editor eudcedit

Quicktime style=”font-size:10.0pt;(If Installed) QuickTime.cpl

Regional Settings intl.cpl

Registry Editor regedit

Registry Editor regedit32

Remote Desktop mstsc

Removable Storage ntmsmgr.msc

Removable Storage Operator Requests ntmsoprq.msc

Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof) rsop.msc

Scanners and Cameras sticpl.cpl

Scheduled Tasks control schedtasks

Security Center wscui.cpl

Services services.msc

Shared Folders fsmgmt.msc

Shuts Down Windows shutdown

Sounds and Audio mmsys.cpl

Spider Solitare Card Game spider

SQL Client Configuration cliconfg

System Configuration Editor sysedit

System Configuration Utility msconfig

System File Checker Utility (Scan Immediately) sfc /scannow

System File Checker Utility (Scan Once At Next Boot) sfc /scanonce

System File Checker Utility (Scan On Every Boot) sfc /scanboot

System File Checker Utility (Return to Default Setting) sfc /revert

System File Checker Utility (Purge File Cache) sfc /purgecache

System File Checker Utility (Set Cache Size to size x) sfc /cachesize=x

System Properties sysdm.cpl

Task Manager taskmgr

Telnet Client telnet

User Account Management nusrmgr.cpl

Utility Manager utilman

Windows Firewall firewall.cpl

Windows Magnifier magnify

Windows Management Infrastructure wmimgmt.msc

Windows System Security Tool syskey

Windows Update Launches wupdmgr

Windows XP Tour Wizard tourstart

Wordpad write


Share is a unit of account for various financial instruments including stocks, mutual funds, limited partnerships, and REIT’s. In British English, the usage of the word share alone to refer solely to stocks is so common that it almost replaces the word stock itself.

In simple Words, a share or stock is a document issued by a company, which entitles its holder to be one of the owners of the company. A share is issued by a company or can be purchased from the stock market.

By owning a share you can earn a portion and selling shares you get capital gain. So, your return is the dividend plus the capital gain. However, you also run a risk of making a capital loss if you have sold the share at a price below your buying price.

A company’s stock price reflects what investors think about the stock, not necessarily what the company is “worth.” For example, companies that are growing quickly often trade at a higher price than the company might currently be “worth.” Stock prices are also affected by all forms of company and market news. Publicly traded companies are required to report quarterly on their financial status and earnings. Market forces and general investor opinions can also affect share price.

Quick Facts on Stocks and Shares

* Owning a stock or a share means you are a partial owner of the company, and you get voting rights in certain company issues
* Over the long run, stocks have historically averaged about 10% annual returns However, stocks offer no
guarantee of any returns and can lose value, even in the long run
* Investments in stocks can generate returns through dividends, even if the price

How does one trade in shares ?

Every transaction in the stock exchange is carried out through licensed members called brokers.

To trade in shares, you have to approach a broker However, since most stock exchange brokers deal in very high volumes, they generally do not entertain small investors. These brokers have a network of sub-brokers who provide them with orders.

The general investors should identify a sub-broker for regular trading in shares and palce his order for purchase and sale through the sub-broker. The sub/broker will transmit the order to his broker who will then execute it .

What are active Shares ?

Shares in which there are frequent and day-to-day dealings, as distinguished from partly active shares in which dealings are not so frequent. Most shares of leading companies would be active, particularly those which are sensitive to economic and political events and are, therefore, subject to sudden price movements. Some market analysts would define active shares as those which are bought and sold at least three times a week. Easy to buy or sell.


Blender is the open-source software for 3D modeling, animation, rendering, post-production, interactive creation and playback. It is available for all major operating systems under the GNU General Public License. Mostly a bug-fixing release, but it also adds a few new features like subsurface scattering (SSS) support and two new composite nodes. Version 2.46 includes cloth and fur simulation, physics caching and baking, shading, glossy reflection and refraction, raytraced soft shadows, improved rendering features, and more.

Blender 2.46 Features

The work of the past half year – also thanks to the open movie project “Big Buck Bunny” – has resulted in a greatly improved feature set, now released as Blender 2.46, the “Bunny release”!

This version supports a new particle system with hair and fur combing tools, fast and optimal fur rendering, a mesh deformation system for advanced character rigging, cloth simulation, fast Ambient Occlusion, a new Image browser, and that’s just the beginning. Check the extensive list of features in the log below… have fun!

Hair and Fur

Many features have been added to make fur and grass rendering for Peach possible. Big improvements were made in visual quality, rendering speed and memory usage.

Image Browsing

The new Image Browser is blazingly fast and stable, and not only allows to browse for images in your filesystem, but can also show previews of materials, textures, world, lamp and image data.

Glossy Reflections

Reflections and refractions are now possible to be rendered with a glossiness factor, controlling the roughness of material.

Render Baking

Great tools for making UV textures: you now can bake normal maps based on rendering a higher resolution mesh, you can bake displacement (including 32 bits depth), and you can bake transparency.

Physics caching and baking

The softbody, cloth and particle physics now use a unified system for caching and baking. For real-time tweaking, a new option “Continue Physics” will continue the simulation regardless of the current frame.

Armature Drawing

Armatures now support Bone groups, custom Bone colors, automatic colors, more custom shape options, … and many more goodies for our rigging department.

Armature Tools

Many new tools and improvements have been made to speed up the rigging and posing workflow. There are now tools for more intuitive bone creation, various hotkeys to speedy batch-editing of bones, auto-ik and auto-keyframing tweaks, and many more goodies.

Skinning improvements

Bone Heat Weighting is a new method to create vertex weights for bone deformation, it generates better results, and does not require setting a radius for bones. Also added was Quaternion-Interpolated Deformation for superior blends.

Game Engine improvements

The Blender GameEngine has seen a great deal of improvement with an increase in play-back speed, a number of nice new features including 2D filter compositing, and of course attention to quality through bug fixes.

Soft Shadows

Raytraced soft shadows are now possible for all lamp types; including spot, sun and point lights.

Render Pipeline

FSA gives superior anti-aliasing for high dynamic range and compositing. Zmasks allow rendering of composite masks. Instancing gives efficient memory re-use for duplicates.

Shading features

* Cubic shading (to prevent discontinuity banding)
* Higher level texture coordinates for duplicates (like feathers)
* Lamp fall-off curves
* Softer Halos, premul alpha, multisample shadowbuffers, …

Python Scripts and API

There have been a large number of script additions and script updates, as well as API improvements since the last release.

Particle system rewrite

The particle system has been rewritten from scratch. It now allows advanced hair grooming tools, but also much better physics, boid animation and even explosions!

Cloth simulation

Cloth simulation is available in Blender via a modifier on Mesh objects. Cloth then realistically and in real-time interacts with other objects, the wind or other forces, all of which is fully under your control.

Approximate AO

Ambient Occlusion is a render option that darkens areas with less visibility, simulating the effect of environment light. This new AO option is based on quick approximation, giving many factors of speedup.

Mesh Deform Modifier

This new method allows to use any random Mesh cage to become a deformation “lattice” for animated characters. By layering – using both a MeshDeformer and an Armature, you can both achieve high level as precise control.

Action Editor improvements

The Action Editor has been rewritten to have a more flexible codebase that is more future-proof and extendable. This has enabled tools to be shared between the editing modes for Actions and ShapeKeys, and now has many new features…

Constraint System

Constraints are crucial for setting up good character rigs. A wealth of new features have been added to improve and extend this system. Most notable is the addition of PyConstraints, allowing full control to animators.

QMC & Adaptive Sampling

Blender now includes two new sampling methods, using a Halton sequence (Adaptive QMC) and a Hammersley sequence (Constant QMC).
Raytracing now also supports adaptive sampling.

Sequencer

Many many new goodies in our Video Sequence Editor:

* UI made more accessible, new panels/views
* Built-in strip blending
* Color correction tools
* Markers, NTSC support, preview, …

UV texture editing

UV texture coordinates now are accessible via regular Mesh editmode. And many more features were added such as:

* UV draw types
* Solid opengl view with textures
* 2d cursor in Image window

Compositing Nodes

New compositing nodes have been added, including glare, lens distortion, directional blur, bilateral blur, tone map, and more.

Shading Nodes

New shading node developments include a front side/back side mask, and extended material node.

And more features

* NDOF devices support
* Align to Transform Orientation
* Pole target for IK chains
* Pose Libraries
* Weight Paint visualization
Multi-Modifier support
Weight-group selecting
* Custom transform orientations
* Distributed rendering options
* External Paths Tools
* Automerge
* Recursive Dupli Groups
* Developer Credits

Free Download
http://www.blender.org/download/get-blender/

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